- 北京赛车信誉群:站长推荐+接待【55523048】    
当前位置: 首页 > 幸运飞艇 > 试玩 >

【媒库文

时间:2018-08-12 05:23 点击:
自恋的核心特征是在情感上依赖他人的崇拜和承认。如果是为了一个群体而谋求他人的崇拜,这种自恋便成为群体行为。(@参考消息)

Consider slogans such as “Make America great again”, used by Donald Trump, or “Take back control”, used by the Brexit campaign. Both slogans were the perfect pitch to mobilise what are called collective narcissists. These are people who want their group to be constantly recognised by others.

The central feature of narcissism is emotional dependence on admiration and recognition by others. When that admiration is sought on behalf of a group, narcissism becomes collective. The term “collective narcissism” was first used by Theodore Adorno to describe the sentiment that gave support to Nazi rule in Germany in the 1930s.

Collective narcissists are prejudiced selectively. They reject or attack groups that somehow threaten their group's grandiose image. Collective narcissists also embrace their own bigoted attitudes. They spin and believe in conspiracy theories about the groups they reject,however fantastic they might be.

Collective narcissists also desire revenge on anyone who doesn't sufficiently recognise their group. In our studies, national collective narcissists in the US read a fictional interview with a foreign exchange student who didn't like some aspects of their exchange experience. After reading unfavourable comments about their country, collective narcissists expressed hostile behavioural intentions towards all compatriots of the exchange student.

The same pattern was repeated when collective narcissists identified themselves as part of a national group. When their group was criticised or not properly recognised, collective narcissists advocated hostile revenge, ranging from insult to injuring.

Collective narcissists also see insult where no one has seen it before. There seems to be no limit to what collective narcissists can interpret as offensive to their group. In one of our studies, Portuguese collective narcissists were hostile towards Germans because they thought Germany had higher status and more power in the European Union than Portugal. So another group may be rejected, marginalised or otherwise “punished” for being better or even as good as one's own.

All this suggests that arguments such as “Foreign workers contribute to the national economy”or “Refugees can find jobs and prosper in host countries” may not only fail to convince national collective narcissists, but actually threaten and enrage them. Success for another group or empowerment for a minority threatens the majority's privileged position.

Consider also that for those who seek recognition for their group, the worst offence is for their group to be ignored. According to collective narcissistic logic, such an offence needs to be avenged. This creates the potential for political antagonism and even violence when groups of this kind feel ignored in political processes. Collective narcissists are more likely to advocate violent revenge for lost grandiosity and gravitate towards similarly minded group members.

Our recent data show that the self-esteem of individuals within groups of collective narcissists is low and their emotions negative. They avoid interpersonal closeness and are vulnerable to shame. Perhaps being involved in democratic processes and institutions can equip collective narcissists with more constructive and less parochial ways of connecting to others. To discourage further escalation of inter-group animosities, we need to understand collective narcissists better as it's clear they are not going away.

让我们想想这些口号,如唐纳德·特朗普的“让美国再次伟大”或英国脱欧运动的“夺回控制权”。二者均是鼓动所谓群体自恋者的绝佳广告词。这是些希望本群体总能得到他人认可的人。

自恋的核心特征是在情感上依赖他人的崇拜和承认。如果是为了一个群体而谋求他人的崇拜,这种自恋便成为群体行为。“群体自恋”一词最早为西奥多·阿多尔诺所用,用来描述20世纪30年代德国国内支持纳粹统治的情结。

群体自恋者会选择性地歧视他人。他们排斥或攻击那些不知怎么就威胁到其群体伟大形象的其他群体。群体自恋者还笃信自己的偏执看法。他们编造并接受一切有关他们排斥的群体的阴谋论,哪管这些论断有多么荒诞不经。

群体自恋者还渴望报复所有未对其群体予以足够认可的人。在我们的研究中,美国的民族主义群体自恋者读到一篇虚构的访谈,接受采访的一名交换生对其留学经历的某些方面表示不满。在读到非议自己国家的言论后,这些自恋者对该交换生的全体同胞表达了恶毒的行为意图。

当群体自恋者认同自己是某全国性团体的一分子时,同样的模式再次显现。当他们的团体受到批评或没有得到公允承认时,群体自恋者主张恶意报复,手段从侮辱到伤害不一而足。

群体自恋者还能看到任何人都未曾察觉的侮辱。似乎这些自恋者能把一切都解读为对其团体的冒犯。在我们的一个研究中,葡萄牙的群体自恋者对德国人很不友好,因为他们认为德国在欧盟的地位比葡萄牙更高,权力比葡萄牙更大。因此,另一个群体可能因为自身更好甚至与其一样好而遭到他们排斥、边缘化或其他方式的“惩罚”。

所有这些都说明,“外籍工人为国民经济作贡献”或“难民可以在东道国找到工作并取得成就”的理由不仅不能说服民族主义群体自恋者,而且实际上还会威胁到并触怒他们。另一个群体的成功或少数群体的赋权会威胁到多数群体的特权地位。

数据统计中,请稍等!
顶一下
(0)
0%
踩一下
(0)
0%
------分隔线----------------------------